“In many ways, modern (persons) live (this) life as a bystander.  Again and again, we are several steps removed from the primary experiences of living.”

| Howard Thurman, The Inward Journey

The journey to racelessness is a deeply spiritual but also practical one.  Not solved during a Sunday morning church visit, a three- point sermon or church business meeting, this work will take time and careful attention, reflection and truth-telling, more than “a little talk with Jesus” and lots of self- confrontation.  We must change the way that we see ourselves before we can change the way that we see others.  But before we can dismantle the sociopolitical construct of race, we must know intimately and deeply what we are working with and what is working against our shared human being.

Below is a small collection of resources that I pray will aid in our understanding of race as a sociopolitical construct that capitalizes on bodies by color- coding them.  Combined, these works can also contribute to the spiritual compulsion to root race out of our shared identity and in turn, our communities.  Race is a “social contract,” says Charles Mills.  We don’t have to agree to this.  We can turn the page on race and its progeny.


AAA Statement on “Race”

Collective Degradation: Slavery and the Construction of Race

The Destructive Nature of the Term ‘Race’: Growing Beyond a False Paradigm

Finding an Unusable Past: Why Has Eugenics Gone Missing From the History of American Economics?

A History: The Construction of Race and Racism

The History of an Idea… and Why It Matters

Religion and Race 

Race as Biology is Fiction

A Short History of the Race Concept

A Summary History of Eugenic Theories and Practices in the United States

The churches preaches eugenics: a history of church support for Darwinism and eugenics

The Negro Problem

The Secret History of Race in the United States

Ten Things Everyone Should Know About Race

Through the Looking Glass: Racial Jokes, Social Context and the Reasonable Person in Hostile Work Environment Analysis

Toward a Racial Abyss: Eugenics, Wickliffe Draper, and the Origins of the Pioneer Fund

What is White Privilege?

Whiteness as Property

Whiteness as Property: Predatory Lending and the Reproduction of Racialized Inequality

White Privilege Checklist

White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack


Theodore Allen, The Invention of the White Race: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo- America (1997)

Gordon Allport, The Nature of Prejudice (1958)

Jabari Asim, The N Word: Who Can Say It, Who Shouldn’t Say it, and Why (2007)

Susan Babbitt & Sue Campbell, Eds., Racism and Philosophy (1999)

James Baldwin, Go Tell It on the Mountain (1953)

James Baldwin, Notes of a Native Son (1955)

James Baldwin, Nobody Knows My Name: More Notes of a Native Son (1961)

James Baldwin, The Fire Next Time (1962)

James Baldwin, Another Country (1962)

James Baldwin, Blues for Mister Charlie (1964)

James Baldwin, Going to Meet the Man (1965)

James Baldwin, The Price of the Ticket (1985)

James Baldwin, The Cross of Redemption: Uncollected Writings (2010)

Jacques Barzun, Race: A Study in Superstition (1937)

Maurice Berger, White Lies: Race and the Myths of Whiteness (1999)

Michael Joseph Brown, Blackening the Bible: The Aims of African American Biblical Scholarship (2004)

Tony Campolo & Michael Battle, The Church Enslaved: A Spirituality of Racial Reconciliation (2005)

Charles Carroll, The Negro a Beast or In the Image of God (1900)

Cameron Carter, Race: A Theological Account(2008)

Charles Chestnutt, Conjure Tales and Stories of the Color Line (1992)

Ron Christie, Acting White: The Curious History of a Racial Slur (2010)

James Cone, God of the Oppressed (1975)

James Cone, A Black Theology of Liberation (1986)

Ellis Cose, Bone to Pick: Of Forgiveness, Reconciliation, Reparation, and Revenge (2004)

Charles Darwin, On The Origin of the Species by means of natural selection or the preservation of favored races in the struggle for life (October 1, 1859)

Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man and selection in relation to sex, Volume 1 (1871)

Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man and selection in relatin to sex, Volume 2 (1871)

Susan Davies & Sister Paul Teresa Hennessee, Eds., Ending Racism in the Church (1998)

Debra Dickerson, The End of Blackness: Returning the Souls of Black Folk to Their Rightful Owners (2004)

Kelly Brown Douglas, The Black Christ (2002)

W. E. B. DuBois, The Souls of Black Folk (1903)

Richard Dyer, White: Essays on Race and Culture (1997)

Emmanuel Chukwudi Eze, Race and the Enlightenment: A Reader (1997)

Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth (1963)

Frantz Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks (1967)

Richard T. Ford, Racial Culture: A Critique (2005)

John Frazier, Florence Margai, & Eugene Tettey- Fio, Race and Place: Equity Issues in Urban America (2003)

George Frederickson, White Supremacy: A Comparative Study of American and South African History (1981)

Sir Francis Galton, Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry into Laws and Consequences (1869)

Sir Francis Galton, Essays in Eugenics (1909)

Thomas Gossett, Race: The History of an Idea in America (1963)

Madison Grant, The Passing of the Great Race or The Racial Basis of European History (1916)

Ken Ham & A. Charles Ware, Darwin’s Plantation: Evolution’s Racist Roots (2007)

Daniel Hays, From Every People and Nation: A Biblical Theology of Race (2003)

Melville Herskovits, The Myth of othe Negro Past (1941)

Samuel George Hines & Curtiss Paul Deyoung, Beyond Rhetoric: Reconciliation as a Way of Life (2000)

bell hooks, Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics (1990)

bells hooks, Black Looks: race and representation (1992)

Dwight Hopkins, Down, Up, and Over: Slave Religion and Black Theology (2000)

David Horowitz, Hating Whitey and other progressive causes (1999)

Noel Ignatiev, How the Irish Become White (1995)

Willie James Jennings, The Christian Imagination: Theology and the Origins of Race (2010)

Robert Jensen, The Heart of Whiteness: Confronting Race, Racism, and White Privilege (2005)

Allan Johnson, Privilege, Power, and Difference (2001)

Robert P. Jones, White Too Long: The Legacy fo White Supremacy in American Christianity (2020)

William R. Jones, Is God A White Racist? A Preamble to Black Theology (1973)

Winthrop Jordan, The White Man’s Burden: Historical Origins of Racism in the United States (1974)

Norman Kelley, The Head Negro in Charge Syndrome: The Dead End of Black Politics (2004)

George Kelsey, Racism and the Christian Understanding of Man (1965)

Randall Kennedy, Nigger: The Strange Career of a Troublesome Word (2002)

Randall Kennedy, Sellout: The Politics of Racial Betrayal (2008)

John Oliver Killens, Black Man’s Burden (1965)

Martin Luther King, Jr., Where do we go from here? Chaos or Community (1967)

Nella Larsen, Passing (1929)

Manning Marable, Beyond Black and White: Transforming African- American Politics (1995)

T. B. Maston,The Bible and Race: a careful examination of biblical teachings on human relations (1959)

Brenda Salter McNeil, A Credible Witness: Reflections on Power, Evangelism and Race (2008)

Margaret Mead & James Baldwin, A Rap on Race (1971)

Charles Mills, The Racial Contract (1997)

Beverly Mitchell, Plantations & Death Camps: Religion, Ideology, and Human Dignity (2009)

Toni Morrison, The Bluest Eye (1970)

Toni Morrison, Tar Baby (1981)

Toni Morrison, Beloved (1987)

Toni Morrison, Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination (1992)

Toni Morrison, God Help the Child (2015)

Nell Irvin Painter, The History of White People (2010)

Norman Anthony Peart, Separate No More: Understanding and Developing Racial Reconciliation in Your Church (2000)

Deborah Plummer, Racing Across the Lines: Changing Race Relations Through Friendship (2004)

Albert J. Raboteau, Slave Religion: The “Invisible Institution” in the Antebellum South (1978)

David Roediger, Toward the Abolition of Whiteness: Essays on Race, Politics, and Working Class History (1994)

David Roediger, Ed., Black on White: Black Writers on What It Means to Be White (1998)

David Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class (2001)

David Roediger, Colored White: Transcending the Racial Past (2002)

David Roediger, Working Toward Whiteness: How America’s Immigrants Became White (2005)

David Roediger, History Against Misery (2005)

David Roediger, How Race Survived U. S. History: From Settlement and Slavery to the Obama Phenomenon (2008)

Rev. Fred Ross, Slavery Ordained of God (May 28, 1857)

Kathy Russell, Midge Wilson, & Ronald Hall, The Color Complex: The Politics of Skin Color Among African Americans (1992)

Charles Silberman, Crisis in Black and White (1964)

Frank Snowden, Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks (1983)

Thomas Sowell, Race and Culture: A Worldview (1994)

Stephen Steinberg, The Ethnic Myth: Race, Ethnicity, and Class in America (1981)

Diane Stinton, Jesus of Africa: Voices of Contemporary African Christology (2004)

David W. Swanson, Re-discipling the White Church: From Cheap Diversity to True Solidarity (2020)

Studs Terkel, Race: How Blacks & Whites Think & Feel About the American Obsession (1992)

Robert Terry, For Whites Only (1970)

Howard Thurman, Deep is the Hunger (1948)

Howard Thurman, Meditations of the Heart (1953)

Howard Thurman, The Creative Encounter (1954)

Howard Thurman, The Inward Journey (1961)

Howard Thurman, Disciplines of the Spirit (1963)

Howard Thurman, The Search for Common Ground (1971)

Jarvis Williams, One New Man: The Cross and Racial Reconciliation in Pauline Theology (2010)

Lena Williams, It’s the Little Things: Everyday Interactions that Anger, Annoy, and Divide the Races (2000)

Thomas Chatterton Williams, Unlearning Race: Self- Portrait in Black and White (2019)

Gayraud Wilmore, Black Religion and Black Radicalism: An Interpretation of the Religious History of African Americans (1973)

Isabel Wilkerson, Caste: The Origins of Our Discontents (2020)

Tim Wise, Between Barack and a Hard Place: Racism and White Denial in the Age of Obama (2009)

Carter G. Woodson, The Mis-Education of the Negro (1933)

George Yancey & Sherelyn Whittum Yancey, Eds., Just Don’t Marry One: Interracial Dating, Marriage, and Parenting(2002)


Annotated Bibliography of Psychology and Racism

Annotated Bibliography of Racial Justice Resources

An Anti-racist Bibliography

Bibliography on Racism

Bibliography of Whiteness Studies

Bibliographical Guide to Structural Racism

Deconstructing Whiteness: A Select Bibliography

The Race Project’s Bibliography

Select Resources for Building Racial Justice

A Selected Bibliography on Racism

Towards a Bibliography of Critical Whiteness Studies

Working Against Racism Bibliography


A Time to Kill (1996)

Amandla: A Revolution in Four- Part Harmony (2003)

American History X (1998)

The Angry Eye (2001)

At the River I Stand (1993)

Backs Against the Wall: The Howard Thurman Story (2019)

Bamboozled (2000)

Banished (2007)

The Believer (2001)

Beloved (1998)

Birth of a Nation (1915)

Black is, Black Ain’t (1995)

Blacks and Jews (1997)

Blue Eyed (1995)

Color Adjustment (1991)

The Color of Fear (1994)

The Color Purple (1985)

Common Witness (1994)

Crash (2004)

Cry Freedom (1999)

Cry, the Beloved Country (1951)

Do the Right Thing (1989)

Ethnic Notions (1987)

Eye of the Storm (197o)

Faces of the Enemy (1987)

February One (2004)

Freedomland (2006)

Free Indeed (1995)

Fruitvale Station (2013)

Get out (2017)

Ghosts of Mississippi (1996)

Glory (1989)

Good Fences (2002)

The Great Debaters (2007)

Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner (1967)

Guess Who (2005)

Have You Heard From Johannesburg? Apartheid and the Club of the West (2007)

Herskovits at the Heart of Blackness (2009)

Higher Learning (1995)

Hotel Rwanda (2004)

I am not your Negro (2017)

Imitation of Life (1934 & 1959)

Introducing Dorothy Dandridge (1999)

James Baldwin: The Price of a Ticket (1990)

The Josephine Baker Story (2001)

A Journey Towards Peace (2001)

Jungle Fever (1991)

The Last King of Scotland (2006)

The Least Among You (2010)

Light in the Shadows

Mi Familia (1995)

Malcolm X (1992)

Mirrors of Privilege: Making Whiteness Visible

Myth of Race (2000)

One Drop Rule (2001)

A Question of Color (1993)

Race: The Power of an Illusion (2003)

A Raisin in the Sun (1961)

The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow (2002)

The Road to Brown (1990)

Roots: The Complete Collection (2007)

Rosewood (1997)

Sankofa (1993)

School Daze (1988)

Selma, Lord, Selma (1999)

Skin (2008)

Skin Deep (1995)

Smoke Signals (1998)

A Soldier’s Story (1984)

Strange Fruit (2002)

To Sir, With Love (1967)

Unnatural Causes (2008)

Us (2019)

The Way Home

What’s race got to do with it? (2006)


Resources for Racial Justice

Sacred Conversations on Race

Belhar Confession