Category Archives: Race and Human Evolution

Who came first- people or race?

chickeneggUnlike the chicken or the egg analogy, human beings and the social construct of race are not inseparable.  Humans did not come from race but race did come from humans, a product of Enlightenment thinking.  Race was not “in the beginning” with God but is with us now because we created it.  We came first and then race.

It is so odd now that race comes first and then our humanity, that we consider the race of a person to determine who they are, what they will be, what they can do.  We place race above empathy, hospitality, reality and even common sense.  When bad things happen, who comes first: the person or their race?  And why does it matter so much?

Does our response or lack thereof depend on how they look?  And if so, why is it a determining factor?  Why are we putting race first, above our call to love and our duty to raise a village?  Who really comes first when we put it like this?

Five facts about the life of race

get-the-facts_garland
  1. Race is a modern invention of the European Enlightenment: “European Enlightenment thinkers retained the Greek ideal of reason, as well as this reason’s categorical function of discriminating between the cultured (now called the ‘civilized) and the ‘barbarian’ (the ‘savage’ or the ‘primitive’). It can be argued, in fact, that the Enlightenment’s declaration of itself as ‘the Age of Reason’ was predicated upon precisely the assumption that reason could historically only come to maturity in modern Europe, while the inhabitants of areas outside Europe, who were consistently described and theorized as rationally inferior and savage.”[i]
  2. Race, here being the hierarchical system that socially positions human beings according to the social coloring of skin and other external features, did not exist prior to the 17th century: “Enlightenment philosophy was instrumental in codifying and institutionalizing both the scientific and popular European perceptions of (human beings).”[ii]
  3. Race rose to fame and notoriety when the Bible’s story of creation was reasoned to be irrational: “The rise of science in the Enlightenment period had overthrown the biblical story of creation and replaced the authority of religion with that of reason, nature was still conceptualized as a hierarchical system (the Great Chain of Being), in which every being, from humans down to fauna and flora, had a ‘naturally’ assigned position and status.”[iii]
  1. The power and influence of race can be attributed to travel writings: “During the two centuries prior to the European Enlightenment, an enormous amount of exploration and voyages around the world had produced numerous published accounts of distant lands and peoples as well as the great expansion of European wealth. These popular travel writings contributed significantly to the perception of Europe as familiar and ‘civilized,’ living in the Age of Light, while the peoples of other lands (Asia, Africa, America) were of ‘strange’ habits and mores. Savagery could then be physically located outside of Europe, outside of light, so that Africa, for example, was considered the Dark Continent, and a terra nulla.”[iv]
  1. Neither colored people, that is socially colored beige/ black/ brown/ red/yellow/ white, existed neither the belief that persons were mentally, physically, socially or spiritually inferior based on appearance prior to 1680. Winthrop Jordan explains, “After about 1680, taking the colonies as a whole, a new term of self- identification appeared—white.”[v]

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[i] Emmanuel Chukwudi Eze, Race and the Enlightenment: A Reader, (Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Malden, MA, 1997), 4.

[ii] Ibid 5

[iii] Ibid 4-5

[iv] Ibid 5

[v] Winthrop Jordan, The White Man’s Burden: Historical Origins of Racism in the United States, (Oxford University Press: New York, NY, 1974), 52.

A picture of President Barack and First Lady Michelle Obama photoshopped to include a banana was tweeted by Irina Rodnina.  Despite the fact that humans come from humans, the piece of fruit has historically been used to suggest that persons from Africa or of African descent derived from apes.[1]  Rodnina is an MP from Vladimir Putin’s United Russia party and a triple Olympic champion figure-skater.


[1] The theory of human evolution suggests that all human beings originated from hominids or “great apes.” Thomas Huxley’s 1863 publication Evidence as to Man’s Place in Nature is apart of the first debates on the subject.