Racism has two major forms of power.
“As an ideology of power, racism takes two major forms: (1) legal or de jure racism and (2) or de facto racism.
In legal or de jure racism, discriminatory practices are encoded in the laws of the land (such as was the case in the USA and in apartheid South Africa). In institutional or de facto racism, on the other hand, racial practices though not encoded in the laws of the land, are still present (albeit, in subtle and sophisticated form), having been built into the very structure of society.”
~ Samuel Koranteng- Pipim, Must We Be Silent? : Issues Dividing Our Church, (Ann Arbor, Michigan: Berean Books, 2001), 314.